In order to increase the objectivity of exams and tests, computer testing has long been used. However, the programs used for it in most cases do not provide objectivity, since they are not immune from the use by students of cheat sheets made according to the principle described in this paper.
Attribution towards cancellation is very different in different countries. In the US, write-off students are reported by their colleagues. In France, a student caught cheating is expelled from the university and loses the right to take any exams (even a driver’s license) for five years. Only in Russia cheating is considered among students almost a valor. At the same time, only 19% of teachers and 3% of students believe that the cheating should be immediately removed from the exam 3, 4. The widespread and massive distribution of cheating calls into question the desirability of conducting tests and exams in a test form. Examination fraud demoralizes even conscientious students, undermining the motivation for systematic work. In fact, why strain and learn something there, when you can easily and easily write off? It is easy to predict how the qualities of the “specialists” are obtained at the exit.
Nevertheless, testing has a number of significant advantages in those cases when it is necessary to verify the assimilation of a large amount of factual material, namely:
- Objective (in the absence of cheating) result, visible immediately and obvious to the student himself,
Control the amount of assimilation of material,
The ability to quickly identify knowledge gaps,
Evaluation of progress with repeated retakes,
The possibility of a relatively short time to ask a large number of students on all issues of the topic or section being studied, which cannot be achieved during an oral survey.
The aim of this work is to analyze ways to increase the objectivity of computer testing. How can I write off if less than one minute is allotted to one task? This becomes possible when using cheat sheets based on the encoding of questions on the first letters of words. For example, the question “Describe the composition of a number of milk and permanent teeth” can be encoded by the combination “osrmpz”, the question “indicate the timing of teething of permanent teeth” - by the combination “uspz”. In the first question, out of the six proposed answers, the second, third, and sixth are correct, and the fourth answer is for the second question. Thus, numbers are assigned to the resulting alphabetic codes, indicating the numbers of the correct answers: "osrmpz 2,3,6", "upps 4". After that, everything is sorted alphabetically and printed on paper in small print.
On a piece of paper measuring 7 × 8 cm (a real example), an answer database for 300 test tasks can be printed!
Programmatically mixing the correct and incorrect answers (with each subsequent presentation of the problem the answers are arranged in a different order) also does not solve the problem of cheating radically. In this case, not only the texts of the questions are encoded in the first letters, but (after the symbol “/”, “:”, “-”, “_”) and the text of the answers. Moreover, the correct answers are marked with letters or letter combinations with which they begin. Let us explain what was said in the following example:
# Question № ** Describe the structure of the spinal column of the newborn. @ + 2.50 the cartilaginous base of the tooth of the second vertebra is spliced with the cartilaginous anterior arch of the atlas, –1.67 cervical lordosis is formed, –1.67 sacrum is represented by a single bone structure, –1.66 all vertebrae are fully formed, + 2.50 there is synostosis two points of ossification of the arc of all vertebrae
The encrypted question and answers to it will have the form "dhspn_x, s, k, b, and: x, and", the first letters of the correct answers are indicated after the colon. To facilitate the search, the first letters of the answer lines are also arranged in alphabetical order: "dhspn_v, and, k, s, x: u, x". As you can see, the principle is simple, like all ingenious, so even a change in the place of the correct answers will not effectively prevent cheating. And after receiving the full text of the tasks with the correct answers indicated (and in many universities the administration requires students to give such tasks), the student is left to do the purely mechanical work of encoding and numbering, and then go to the exam.
How to prevent cheating? This can be done using a set of the following measures:
- You can not give students ready-made answers with a small number of tasks (about 200 - 300). In this case, testing turns into a destroyer of the educational process: students do not study the material, but prepare cheat sheets or memorize numbers of correct answers, which the authors have observed many times. It should not be given ready-made answers, but control questions or (in extreme cases) brief structured summaries of the material studied,
As a palliative measure (if the program used cannot “mix” the arrangement of answers), you can prepare a set of tasks in three
- Five options, in each of which the correct answers are arranged differently. For example, in the example described above, the correct answers are the first and fifth. In another embodiment, they will be second and third, in the third - fourth and fifth, etc. Students are given only one option, and the exam randomly uses tasks from all options,
3. Since it is always possible for students to receive ready-made answers from all options with the subsequent use of “complicated coding” (see above), then:
- the kit should be large enough, of the order of several thousand tasks for each section (questions fully cover all the details of the material studied, and each question is repeated several times in a different form). It’s physically impossible to learn the location of so many answer options, and the cheat sheet will become so long that it will become very difficult to use it,
- wherever possible, one should: a) reduce the wording of the questions to the standard form: “Mark the correct statements ...”, “which options regarding ... are incorrect”, “it is true for the newborn. ”, Etc., b) start the correct irregular answers with the same words.
All this can significantly complicate cheating and prompting, including using mobile communications. The radical solution to the problem is to improve the software for electronic exams. Programs are needed that will allow:
- Randomly change the location of answers on the monitor screen with each new output of the task to the screen.
- Rank the questions by degree of importance, since it is obvious that a student’s ignorance of the structure of blood circulation circles or parts of organs is far from the same as ignorance of some small details. The program should be able to stop testing after one or several gross errors (in addition to all this, it will significantly reduce the time for testing).
- Use the drawings to ask questions in the graphic form: "indicate the correct location ...", "which of the presented diagrams ... is erroneous", "mark the objects in the drawing ..." etc., to avoid cheating.
- Use open-ended questions without ready-made answer options when the responder enters his answer in the screen form field.
All these measures, in our opinion, will contribute to improving the quality of the educational process, motivate students to deep and comprehensive study of subjects and return objectivity to computer exams.
Human imagination has no limits. It is with this banal phrase that one can describe the huge number of methods of how to write off correctly or how to make a cheat sheet, which today can be found on many resources on the Internet. But there are not so many truly original options, and most of the well-known teachers and teachers are no worse than schoolchildren and students themselves. Therefore, the following methods should be used carefully, choosing a method for the situation.
1. Cheating from the cheat sheet
"Spurs" is one of the oldest inventions cheating, while the method itself is not the easiest. These are, in fact, pre-prepared mini-answers to exam questions or general course information if the questions are not known. During the development of this method, human experience has gathered enormous empirical experience.
The varieties of material are truly endless - the answers to the questions can be written on traditional "accordions", small pieces of crumpled paper, on sheets of A4 with blackened text, which can later be passed out as a draft. Such accessories are hidden anywhere - in shoes, folds of clothes, sleeves, in the lining of a tie, under bracelets or watches. It is old as the world and a way of applying text to the skin of the hand, followed by hiding under the sleeve of a shirt or sweater.
Despite such a large number of methods, writing off a cheat sheet is not easy at all. If there are many questions, then cribs are harder to hide, a certain time will also be needed to find the right answers. But there are some advantages: working on creating a cheat sheet, some of the information will be deposited in your memory. An important factor is the confidence factor, because you feel calmer with a cheat sheet.
2. Cheating using technology
For many schoolchildren and students, making paper cribs today is the father's method. The rapid development of technology allows you to write off using a mobile phone, player, tablet, e-book, earpiece. Even 10 years ago, the average cheating and could not dream of such a variety of devices. In our time, cheating using these devices has become widespread, which led to the fact that during the exam, other important exams, the use of technical devices was banned. But it is possible to write off, for example, from a telephone during a test or standings.
There are many methods:
- Cheat sheets in electronic form. Most modern mobile devices read basic text formats, so downloading such a file is easy.
- SMS / MMS. The technique is simple and effective. Test questions are sent to a friend who searches for information in books previously left with him, the Internet, etc., and then types and sends the answers.
- Mobile Internet. Independent search for answers using the Internet connected to the gadget. It’s not always fast, it’s not always possible to find the right answer, so it’s not always convenient. A more convenient form is sending replies to e-mail, in ICQ or Skype.
- Earpiece or hands-free headset. The method with humor shown by L. Gaidai in the comedy "Operation" Y "and Shurik's other adventures." At the beginning of the application of the technology, it was quite effective, but today, teachers and teachers have already learned enough to identify cheaters in this way. The essence of cheating is recording answers to questions on a voice recorder and then listening to them or real-time mode - dictating answers to a friend from, for example, a neighboring audience.
- Electronic organizer. Significant volumes of information can be entered into such a device, while the appearance of the organizer does not differ much from the multifunctional calculator. Of the minuses - a very long time to write a cheat sheet on the device itself. Suitable for decommissioning only on the subjects of the technical cycle.
3. Cheating and improvised means
Now more and more often during the exam or test, it is forbidden to have anything with you that is not related to the procedure. But at the usual control or independent work at the end of the seminar, this method may be useful. The trick is to use the means at hand as a crib or to hide it:
- Additional materials. On control and even school exams in history, geography, biology, chemistry, geometry, you can often use maps, charts, tables. If you want and the ability to use them, such material becomes an indispensable tool in revealing many issues. If you can use, for example, your own atlas, then it will prudently make small notes with a pencil on the enclosed drawings and maps.
- If the message about the control caught you by surprise, then an extreme method (which, by the way, we do not approve and do not recommend to use) can be a quick small record on the desk of the main information - dates, formulas, last names and other things. It is also used when the audience where the exam will be held is precisely known. It is enough to arrive early, take a convenient place and write on the table or chair the necessary cheat sheet.
- Here are just some examples of how to use improvised cheating tools: write a spur on the back of the bottle label with opaque soda and glue it back slightly, hide the cheat sheet in an empty juice box, after cutting a specially opening niche in it, scratch it with a needle formulas, any other necessary information on a bar of chocolate and put it in front of you, from time to time eating a small piece.
- If you are making a cheat sheet, then it is better to write it by hand. Special studies prove that when reading only 10% of the information is absorbed, but when writing this figure increases significantly. Therefore, writing a cheat sheet “by hand”, and without printing it, your chance of passing the exam, credit or control will be higher, even if she fails to use it.
- Never make cheat sheets with whole answers to a question. Write the main thing - abstracts, formulas, dates, keywords. It is on the basis of this, and not “water,” that the answer is built, and it is sometimes much easier to hide a smaller cheat sheet and write off from it than from a small volume of completely prepared answers.
- Always make the numbering of cribs convenient and understandable, hide them in a structured way so that in a matter of minutes you can be able to find exactly the material you need from the entire array.
- Remember that the teacher will almost certainly know what you are writing off, but may not show it, and will give an assessment based on your academic performance over the course of a semester. Therefore, it’s good to have a rear from at least the final “troika”, as well as try to collect minimal information about the examiner, in particular about his attitude to cheating.
- Be creative. The original cheat sheet, hidden creatively, even if it is found, can take its rightful place in the personal archive of the teacher or teacher and you may be lucky enough to finish the exam and pass it the first time. And vice versa - arrogant cheating in the hope of “maybe blowing and the teacher will not notice or show” can cause just indignation and greatly harm.
- For confident cheating, you need to at least master the skills of acting, at the same time, to behave as relaxed as possible. This will avoid the suspicion of the teacher.
- Always remember, the best cheat sheet is its absence. Knowledge of the material gives much more self-confidence than the most cunning and informative spur.
1. Transparent printing
Today, in almost any print center, you can print an A4 page on a folia - transparent film. The advantages of such a crib are that it is practically not visible on a varnished wooden table. But on the painted desk she stands out.The disadvantage is also the relative high cost of such a printout in comparison with conventional printing.
3. Invisible text
The spur is written with a pen with invisible ink (sympathetic), the text disappears after a while, the usual blank sheet remains. As a rule, at the other end of such a pen there is a special flashlight, when you hover a beam of light on a piece of paper you can read it. The disadvantage is that you have to spend money on buying a pen.