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Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

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Gestational diabetes occurs only during pregnancy, and it usually goes away as soon as you deliver the baby.

Pregnant women with gestational diabetes have higher levels than normal blood sugar. This is because their bodies do not produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood sugar.

Gestational diabetes can occur almost at any time during pregnancy, but usually it occurs between 24 and 28 weeks. This is also when testing usually occurs.

Getting gestational diabetes testing is an important part of antenatal care. Doctors check all pregnant women at least once during pregnancy. Your doctor will review your risk factors in determining when you should take this test and how often you should have it. Find out what to expect during this test and how to prepare it.

What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?

Many women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms. If symptoms appear, perhaps you can ignore them because they look like typical pregnancy symptoms.

These symptoms may include:

  • frequent urination
  • extreme thirst
  • fatigue
  • snore

You should call your doctor if you experience these symptoms more than is normal for you,

What causes gestational diabetes?

The exact cause of gestational diabetes is unknown, but it may be due to the hormones that your placenta produces. These hormones help your baby grow, but they can also stop insulin from doing its job. If your body cannot make enough insulin, the sugar in your bloodstream remains put. Then sugar cannot turn into energy in the cell. This is called insulin resistance.

If left untreated, gestational diabetes can have serious consequences for both you and your baby. As soon as your doctor knows that you have this condition, they will work with you on a treatment plan to ensure your health and that of your child.

What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes?

Any pregnant woman can get gestational diabetes. That's why doctors check every pregnant woman. Gestational diabetes affects 5 to 18 percent of women during pregnancy.

Some factors may increase your risk and require you to get tested during your first prenatal visit. Your doctor may also check you several times after this. Risk factors include:

  • obesity
  • over 25 years old
  • with a family history of diabetes
  • having a history of gestational diabetes during a previous pregnancy
  • gaining significant amounts of weight in early adulthood and between pregnancies
  • gaining excessive weight while pregnant
  • had a previous delivery of a baby who was over 9 pounds
  • high blood pressure
  • on glucocorticoids

Procedure What happens during the test?

This test measures your body's response to glucose. It is used to determine how well your body processes glucose after eating.

Your doctor will ask you to quickly prepare for this test at night. Ask your doctor if you can swallow water at this time. You should remind your doctor of any medications you are taking and ask if they should stop taking them at this time.

After arriving at your doctor’s office, your doctor will measure your blood sugar. After that, you will be asked to drink a glass of 8 ounce glucose solution. Your doctor will measure glucose once an hour for the next three hours.

If one of the tests shows that you have high blood sugar, your doctor may check you again after four weeks. Your doctor will likely diagnose you with gestational diabetes if two or more tests show that you have high blood sugar.

Some doctors skip the glucose test and only do a glucose tolerance test. Talk with your doctor about which protocol makes sense for you.

What are the options for treating gestational diabetes?

If you have gestational diabetes, your doctor will often monitor your condition. They will use sonograms to pay close attention to your child’s growth.

During pregnancy, you can also control yourself at home. You can use a small needle called a lancet to prick your finger in a drop of blood. You can use a blood glucose monitor to analyze this drop of blood. People usually perform this test when they wake up and after eating.

If lifestyle changes do not work, your doctor may recommend that you inject insulin. Between 10 and 20 percent of pregnant women with gestational diabetes need this type of help to lower their blood sugar. They may also prescribe oral medications to control blood sugar.

What are the complications of untreated gestational diabetes?

It is important to control gestational diabetes. If left untreated, complications may include:

high blood pressure

  • premature birth
  • slightly higher fetal and neonatal mortality rates
  • Untreated gestational diabetes can also lead to high birth weight babies. This is called macrosomia. Macrosomy can cause damage to the shoulder during childbirth and usually requires a cesarean section. Macrosomia infants are more likely to have childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes.

What is a prospect?

Gestational diabetes usually goes away after birth. Proper nutrition and exercise continue to be important to your health after childbirth.

Your child’s lifestyle should also be healthy. Choose foods that are high in fiber and low in fat for both of you. You should also avoid sweet sweets and simple starches when possible. Creating a movement and fulfilling the partial life of your family is a great way to support each other in pursuit of a healthy life.

Keep reading: stay fit during pregnancy ”

Prevention

How can you prevent or reduce gestational diabetes?

Lifestyle changes can help prevent gestational diabetes or reduce its effects. These changes include:

weight loss before pregnancy

  • the implementation
  • goal setting for weight gain pregnancy
  • high fiber, low fat foods
  • reducing the size of your servings of food
  • You should include the following in your diet:

whole grains like quinoa

  • poor protein like tofu, chicken and fish
  • skim dairy products
  • fruits
  • vegetables
  • Simple, refined carbohydrates found in sweet desserts and soda tend to increase blood sugar levels. You should limit these types of foods in your diet.

Walking, swimming and prenatal yoga can be a great exercise option. Consult a physician before starting a new exercise regimen.

Keep reading: Stay fit during pregnancy ”

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