If your schoolchild has long been built and ready to take the exam or exam, the psychologist Lyudmila Petranovskaya’s advice on the strategy for passing the exams will probably not be required. But if you pass the exam or exam is a big problem - read, perhaps there will be ideas how to prepare for exams more efficiently.
Preparation for any exam should begin with questions for yourself. The strategies for your actions depend on the answers to them.
Question one: what do I need from this exam? Just pass and get an assessment, and then you can forget everything, or would I like to learn this material firmly, for a long time? If you pass mathematics that you deeply dislike on the USE, and are going to enter a music school, this is one situation and one strategy. If you pass the physics that you are going to study at the university, this is different.
Most likely, everyone answers this question to himself - unconsciously. But it’s better to consider and discuss this choice, for example, with parents. Knowing everything is equally impossible, and you should not blame yourself for this and bring to the point of exhaustion cramming of uninteresting and obscure.
On the other hand, do not rush to declare any object completely unnecessary: in any there is a certain central, most important part, which any cultural person should know and understand. For example, you may not be able to solve the problems of transforming substances, but you may not know how the periodic table is arranged and what the meaning of its opening is - indecent, even if you are a violinist. Separate the important things from the "walk-through", then we will talk about how to handle those and others.
Question two: which result is desirable for me, and which is acceptable? Very often, not distinguishing between these levels leads to unnecessary stress, especially for good, conscientious students (and even more so for parents). It is clear that it would be good to always get only fives. But in one case, this is not only a desirable, but also the only acceptable result - let’s say, if you enter a university it is possible only with the highest USE scores in this subject.
And in another case, an acceptable result can be much lower - for example, a triple on the mandatory exam in mathematics for the future violinist. This does not mean that you need to strive to pass the exam in the top three. It just means that if the only way to get a higher mark is to bring yourself to nervous exhaustion and abandon the preparation for the entrance exam in the violin, it would be better if there are three.
And this decision (I’ll clarify once again: it’s better not to take the triple, but the decision not to consider the triple the end of the world) in advance. And in a relaxed state, you look, and you will find mathematics not such an unpleasant science, and you will pass well.
Or, for example, you know that you are having difficulty writing texts, an essay scares you as part of the exam. Is it worth setting the goal of “learning to write well and easily for the six months remaining before the USE,” if you have not learned in all the previous 10 years at school? It’s unlikely that you have aimed at journalism with such dislike for writing, right? So, do not try to learn to "write well" in general - you just need to learn how to write an essay on social studies just passably using homework. You will not write a masterpiece, but it is quite possible to get a decent score on the exam.
The second question is directly related third: how the acceptable result and the current state of knowledge on the subject are related. The amount of upcoming work depends on this, which means planning time.
It’s not at all necessary that the more time, the more important the exam is for you. Quite the contrary: a person who loves and knows literature, writes well, is literate, most likely he will not be particularly prepared for an examination essay in the Russian language, even if the result is very important. And he’ll do it right, for him the best preparation is rest.
But if someone has serious problems with literacy, something needs to be done in advance: begin to study additionally, go to courses, find a tutor. Or, for example, the solution of problems in physics, chemistry, mathematics should be started long before the exam, it takes time, you can’t do anything on the spot. What is needed: time, textbooks, money, information? It is important to navigate in advance - the sooner the more important the exam result and the more voluminous the material.
It's time to think about everything about it - the summer before the graduation class, in extreme cases - its first quarter, when it comes to the exam, and the first third of the semester, when it comes to the student session. But even if you didn’t do it on time, start thinking about exams anyway. precisely from this. Just think and decide faster.
Exam Preparation Rules
When you prepare for the exam and see a mountain of unexplored material, your hands drop. It seems impossible to learn everything in a short time. No wonder they say that "the road will be overpowered by the walking one." Drop fears and start small with proven tricks.
- Distribute the time correctly. Alternate classes intermittently.
- Focus on the material. In the hours of preparation for the exam, remove distractions. Close Skype, social networks, turn off or turn off the sound on the phone. Warn relatives and friends that you will not answer.
- It can be difficult to focus on the material, attention is diverted to insignificant trifles. In such cases, focus on the essentials. Delve into at least 5-10 minutes. You will see that further study will be easier. Having understood the essence of the issue, you will understand the rest of the material.
- The ability to understand the material. Very often the question arises, how to prepare for an exam in mathematics, since this subject requires knowledge of a large number of formulas and theorems. It is also difficult to prepare for an exam in history and English, where you have to cram dates and words.
- It is known that conventional cramming will not bring results. Therefore, to remember, it is important to understand what you are reading. Catch the essence of the material, then you do not have to cram each formula and wording. You can easily retell the learned material in your own words.
- Charge. Physical activity makes the brain work more actively. This relieves stress. Perform a warm-up every break. In the evening, jog or walk on the street. Fresh air gives a surge of new strength.
- The psychological attitude. It is important to set yourself up for a positive outcome. No need to predict your own failure in advance.
- The attitude and attitude towards success creates favorable conditions for memorizing text and formulas.
How to prepare for the exam?
Summer is approaching every month, and high school students begin to wonder how to pass this exam successfully. Every year there are students who receive an unsatisfactory score. This happens for various reasons:
- low level of knowledge
- Errors in the design of forms.
To pass the exam, it is important to consider these errors.
- Search the Internet and study the instructions to fill in the form lines correctly. Try to print a printed sample to bring it to automatism. This is an important point, as students devote a lot of time to the paperwork and spoil the forms due to stress.
- Count the number of days that remain to prepare for the exam. Estimate the amount of material and distribute it into equal parts by day. Leave 2-3 days before the exam to repeat the topics covered.
- Perform tasks in accordance with the plan, do not step back from it, although it will be very difficult for you. Highlight individual hours to have extra incentive.
- Every day, devote up to 20 minutes to consolidate the topics learned. Just before the exam, start repeating the learned information in 2-3 days. Be sure to leave 1 day for rest and relaxation before the exam.
- Exam preparation may vary by subject. If you are preparing for math, write on a separate sheet of formula, values. When preparing for a story, be sure to write down events and dates. Hang in the room, in the kitchen above the table, sheets of information to repeat in your spare time. You can also remember irregular verbs, vocabulary words, foreign words.
Learn during the preparation to abstract from the outside world. Imagine that you are on an exam and there is only a blank sheet in front of you.
How to perform the exam in mathematics?
Mathematics remains the subject of the Unified State Exam. To pass this subject, one schooling is not enough. You must attend courses or hire a tutor who prepares directly for the exam.
Before examinations it is necessary to familiarize yourself with control and measuring materials. Solve them in order to prepare for the main math exam and not to make a mediocre mistake. Now teachers give this information in the lesson. You must not underestimate it, so be careful.
Before the exams, all the time is devoted to preparing, studying and repeating the material. Some try to learn more by sacrificing night sleep.
Remember that the exam must have bright thoughts. This is possible if you had a good night's sleep!
Have breakfast in the morning so that the feeling of hunger does not distract from the main process. Pay all attention to passing the exam, do not be distracted by surrounding objects. Focus and gather, as inattention often causes a low score.
How to prepare for the exam in the exam format: history
Prepare for the exam offer various preparatory classes. Moreover, they are taught not a brief description of historical events, but the study of the format of the Unified State Exam:
- sort out the nuances of test tasks,
- clarify the wording
- help to allocate time for solving exercises,
- talk about typical mistakes that students make
- give trial versions of tests.
If you decide to prepare with a tutor, contact teachers who specialize in preparing for the exam.
Ordinary historians can interestingly tell, but they do not know the nuances and design features.
Teachers argue that the best option for preparing for the exam is to decide as many options as possible on your own in advance. They are sold in stores and on the Internet.
Exam Preparation: Natural History
The natural science exam is the most difficult because it includes the basics of a whole list of lessons. These are economics, political science, sociology and law. It is necessary for graduates who decide to acquire the profession of a lawyer, marketer, economist, manager.
Passing an exam, knowing only the school curriculum, is impossible. It is necessary to prepare, since testing covers various areas. A suitable tutor will help you choose the right benefits. He knows which publishers provide complete and relevant information.
The amount of memorized information is not as large as that of history or mathematics, since this subject is studied only in high school. But there are many difficulties. It is especially difficult to complete the third part of the task, so train more to solve this block.
Teachers are advised to study information on topics, and not on the location of tasks. Gradual assimilation is much more effective than throwing from one fact to another. To make it easier to memorize material, make a brief summary. This will help you quickly navigate when solving different tasks.
Solving trial tasks, note the time spent on solving the first 2 tasks. Try to leave most of the 3 parts to get the best score.
Exam Preparation & Memorization
You did the first important thing: formulated a task for yourself, set criteria for success, planned your time. Now we can proceed to the actual preparation.
Psychologically, the actual start of exam preparation is usually reading a list of exam topics. At this moment, the amorphous field of the “subject in general” is replaced by a specific set of topics, each of which can be said: I know it, it is not.
This is where you need to start preparing for any exam: carefully read the list of topics and evaluate the state of your knowledge for each. You will see that you could answer a question at least now, and they got a different topic and you have a very vague idea of what it is all about. There is no need to explain that it is very important to find out this fact a month before the exam, and not a day.
On the eve of the examination fever, any person is visited by good impulses: I will not postpone everything until the last day, I will start preparing in advance. The idea itself is good, but the idea, for example, to learn the first five topics from the list in a month is unsuccessful. To understand why, you need to know the characteristics of human memory.
Suppose we read some text containing a certain amount of information: facts, numbers, names, etc. When we just carefully read it slowly, it seems to us that we remember almost everything. In fact, a person with normal memory will remember in this case about 70% of the information. In a few hours it will remain less than 50%, in a day - less than 20%, and this balance will almost not decrease over time. The insidious thing is that forgetting will not be realized until you try to retell the text or answer questions about it.
But what is this remainder that is not going away? This is just the essence, the information from the text that you did not just remember, but understood, that is, made your own. In a sense, the text was written for her sake. In addition to the most important thing, bright, emotionally significant moments can remain in the memory, something that struck the imagination.
That is, after reading once a paragraph from a history textbook, you will be on the next day - at best, if you have a good memory, you were careful and the text itself is well written - remember who fought with whom, because of which, when approximately it was and who won. Plus a couple of vivid episodes, if they were described. How Roland blew a horn or how they defended the house of Lieutenant Pavlov. That is, everything that remains can be fit into a couple of paragraphs of text. Just 20% of the original. Check and see for yourself.
Actually, this feature of memory is the main thing that you need to consider when preparing for exams. In advance, you need to do the main thing that you need to understand. Everything that you really understand will stay with you for a long time. All that you just need to remember, we put aside as close as possible to the exam itself, if you just need to memorize (and then you can forget) - we postpone it to the last days.
So, there are three main stages of preparation for the exam.
Is it possible to prepare in one day?
You carelessly spent the time allotted for preparing for the exam, and in a few days you remembered that there was a crucial moment ahead? Have you decided in one day to prepare for the delivery of the subject? Try the following scheme:
- read all exam questions to represent the whole material,
- try to find a specific and understandable answer to each question,
- carefully read the answers and try to establish a logical connection between different tasks and the surrounding reality,
- if time remains, make cheat sheets, writing down the material as briefly as possible, but informatively.
Get enough sleep at night to feel alert in the morning. The pale appearance with bruises under the eyes and other consequences of lack of sleep does not inspire confidence and has little to itself. Relieve confidence, because the psychological attitude plays a big role.
Algorithm for preparing for the exam and the exam: three stages
The first is primary broth stage - begins long before the exam. This is a gradual accumulation of information on the subject, and not only in the lessons.
You read fiction and non-fiction, watch TV, surf the Internet, chat with friends, attend circles - and then you are surprised to find that you know something that you have never been taught. The richer and more diverse your life, the more you are interested in a subject, the richer your “primary broth”.
In extreme cases, this may make special preparation for the exam completely unnecessary. And vice versa, a person with a narrow horizons, who does the lessons “from now to now” and never reads anything beyond what is necessary, usually passes exams with great torment.
Therefore, if you want to start preparing in advance - read not the textbook, but all that is interesting that you can find on the subject: articles in magazines, encyclopedias, thematic forums. Let the broth cook. When you navigate the topic as a whole, you know the basic concepts, events, facts, discoveries, and textbook texts will be better remembered, because many facts will “come to life” for you - their meaning and role will become clear, the connections between events or concepts will be visible.
Of course, it is necessary to solve problems in advance, when it comes to physics, mathematics, chemistry, and to study a foreign language - these are the knowledge that you can’t shove into the head by any immersion in a few days.
If the volume is large, or the subject is heavily neglected, or simply not very easy to give, at this stage it makes sense to seek help - contact a tutor, take courses. Это позволит лучше разобраться в самых сложных моментах и не впасть в отчаяние перед необозримым морем учебного материала.
Вторая стадия — стадия «погружения» — самая ответственная, это собственно целенаправленная подготовка к экзамену, те несколько дней, которые отведены на нее в расписании. От того, сумеете ли вы правильно распределить нагрузку в эти три-четыре дня, и зависит ваш успех. It is at this time that you systematize your knowledge of the subject, fill the gaps, gain confidence. Usually it is on these days that the consultation with the teacher is necessary.
Finally, the third stage - stage of "assault", or "boarding" - It comes down to remembering what you need to remember, and patching the last "holes" in your knowledge. This work takes place on the last day before the exam, which helps to minimize forgetting.
It is clear that the third stage makes sense only if you have already created a solid foundation and you are well or at least tolerably oriented in the subject. Remembering the verbs-exceptions on "it", not knowing what conjugation would be, is extremely strange (although many do so).
It is clear that the distribution of time between stages can vary depending on the specifics of the subject and on your chosen strategy. If the item is favorite, then the first stage can be inextricably linked with the second, and the third can be very small. If there is neither the opportunity nor the desire to master the subject well, a special burden falls on the second and third stages.
On the other hand, it is clear that for physics, immersion is much more important than “boarding”, there is nothing special to remember, you need to understand. But for history, even if this is the most favorite subject, the repetition of names and dates before the exam is necessary, and one evening may not be enough. Therefore, I emphasize once again that it is important to think about all this in advance and plan the time well.
Author Lyudmila Petranovskaya pedagogue-psychologist, creator of the Institute for the Development of the Family Device, author of books for parents and children, conducts lectures and webinars